Q. What is turbidity ?
Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water looses its transparency due to the presence of suspended particulates. The more total suspended solids in the water, the murkier it seems and the higher the turbidity. Turbidity is considered as a good measure of the quality of water.
Q. What causes turbidity ?
There are various parameters influencing the cloudiness of the water. Some of these are :
Q. Which is the maximum allowed turbidity in drinking water ?
- Sediments from erosion
- Resuspended sediments from the bottom (frequently stir up by bottom feeders like carp)
- Waste discharge
- Algae growth
- Urban runoff
The WHO (World Health Organization), establishes that the turbidity of drinking water shouldn't be more than 5 NTU, and should ideally be below 1 NTU.
Q. What are the consequences of high turbidity ?
The suspended particles absorb heat from the sunlight, making turbid waters become warmer, and so reducing the concentration of oxygen in the water (oxygen dissolves better in colder water). Some organisms also can’t survive in warmer water. The suspended particles scatter the light, thus decreasing the photosynthetic activity of plants and algae, which contributes to lowering the oxygen concentration even more. As a consequence of the particles settling to the bottom, shallow lakes fill in faster, fish eggs and insect larvae are covered and suffocated, gill structures get clogged or damaged…
Q. What are the impacts of turbidity ?
The main impact is merely esthetic: nobody likes the look of dirty water. But also, it is essential to eliminate the turbidity of water in order to effectively disinfect it for drinking purposes. This adds some extra cost to the treatment of surface water supplies. The suspended particles also help the attachment of heavy metals and many other toxic organic compounds and pesticides.
Q. How do we measure turbidity ?
Turbidity is measured in NTU: Nephelometric Turbidity Units. The instrument used for measuring it is called nephelometer or turbidimeter, which measures the intensity of light scattered at 90 degrees as a beam of light passes through a water sample. The unit used in the ancient times was JTU (Jackson Turbidity Units), measured with the Jackson candle turbidimeter. This unit is no longer in standard use.
- In lakes the turbidity is measured with a secchi disk (in the picture).
- This is a black and white disk that is dropped in the water attached to a rope.
- The depth that the disk reaches before it disappears from sight is recorded.
- This provides an estimation of the turbidity level in the lake.
A turbidity measurement could be used to provide an estimation of the TSS (Total Suspended Solids) concentration, which is otherwise a tedious and difficult parameter to measure. APEX TECHNOLOGY can provide you with a turbidimeter to measure the turbidity of your water. Please do not hesitate to contact us if you want any information on this.
Click Here to View Detail of pH
Click Here to View Detail of TDS
Q. Municipal Wastewater Treatment
APEX offers one of the widest ranges of treatment options for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Biological systems offered include Vertical Loop Reactor, Fine Bubble Membrane Diffusers, Oxidation Ditch-Type Multiple-Pass aeration, Nutrient removal through nitrification/de-nitrification. Besides this, the emphasis is always on maximising efficiency and minimum operating costs. For sludge digestion, we offer unique gas mixing systems for anaerobic digesters equipped with fixed or floating covers in single stage or two stage digestion systems. Our major installations include sewage treatment plant of 160 MLD (6700 m3/hr) for the city of Delhi.
We offer MBR systems for advanced biological treatment requirements.
Municipal Water Treatment
APEX TECHNOLOGY offers equipment & technology in the form of turnkey solutions for water treatment requirements ranging from processing water for industries to municipal water for drinking purposes. Triveni offers an entire range that involves chemical conditioning, clarification, filtration, disinfection, ion exchange and membrane based systems. Among its other installations, is a 144 MLD (6000 m3/hr) water treatment plant for the city of Agra, set up under the World Bank Financing Scheme.
Process Water Treatment
APEX TECHNOLOGY offers complete solutions for process water requirement including boiler feed water & cooling water requirements. We have a complete range of products such as Clarifiers, Sand Filters, Carbon Filters, Softeners, De-ionization Plants and Reverse Osmosis Systems, including pre-treatment which includes micro-filtration and ultra-filtration, to provide even ultra pure water. We ensure the most appropriate technically and commercially viable system without being biased to any specific technology. Triveni has installed one of the largest process Water Treatment Plant of 6000 M3/Hr capacity at NTPC, Vindhyachal.
Intake Water Works
APEX TECHNOLOGY offers equipment & technology in turnkey packages for intake water, water and sewage inflows for various applications such as Intake water works for industries, Intake water for sewage pumping station and Intake water for power plants. Systems can be offered with fixed or traversing type Trash Cleaning / Screening equipment to meet the various requirements. We can offer these packages with Through Flow and/or Dual Flow Travelling Water Screens to suit the specific site requirement.
High Purity Systems
APEX TECHNOLOGY offers a complete range of High Purity Systems including those required for Boiler Feed applications. This may include RO / MB configuration or DM / MB option. We provide pre & post options for colloidal silica removal in such systems which may include Membrane systems. TRIVENI has completed its largest installation where the combined RO / MB plant capacity is 200 M3/hr for Boiler Feed application in Khatauli Co-gen Power Plant.
In various applications water requires extensive pre-treatment so that downstream units are safe from the impurities which may otherwise damage the system. This is crucial for High Purity systems where main treatments include either Membrane based solutions or Resin based technologies. We provide Microfiltration and also Ultra filtration in association with Memcor, Australia. One of the most prestigious job, involving 3 x 45 M3/hr UF Streams as Pre-treatment to RO / MB plant, is at Indorama Petrochemicals Ltd., Nagpur.
We have successfully commissioned numerous installations in the above industries including one of the largest wastewater treatment plants in the Indian Steel sector treating about 184 MLD (7700 m3/hr) wastewater from the steel plant at Vizag (East Coast of India).